UK Land Flux Network: North Pennines Blanket Bog
UK Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Flux Network

Science challenge

This project addresses a fundamental driver of climate change, the net emission and removal of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by terrestrial ecosystems. As we embark on the UK’s transition towards a Net Zero target in 2050, the role of the biosphere to offset the remaining anthropogenic emissions becomes increasingly important. Meeting this target will require us to quantify the biosphere's capacity to sequester carbon, and to understand the controls on biogenic emissions of methane and nitrous oxide.

Project summary

Land use and land management choices which sequester carbon or reduce GHG emissions may provide a means to mitigate climate change, and a sound quantification of these GHG fluxes is needed if this is to form part of the strategy for achieving Net Zero. The measurement network has a focus on peatland and agricultural systems, where there is potential for substantial carbon capture and storage, but considerable uncertainty. As well as a coherent national network, the work links to the pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) network of 100 measuring stations, aimed at quantifying the GHG balance of Europe. The UK has an ongoing programme to independently verify the national-scale emissions of GHGs via atmospheric inverse modelling, and the network feeds into this process via the UKGHG model. The work has also developed real-time processing software and the eddystore processing engine and database, and associated software tools, which provide unified, efficient data management for the network and partner institutes.


This work focusses on measuring the GHG balance of key ecosystems at a network of sites across the UK, so as:

  • To analyse long-term trends and inter-annual variability
  • To gain process understanding
  • To attribute effects of land management
  • To provide data for model calibration and testing.
Cross Lochs UKLFN site


Storage and parallel processing of eddy covariance data



All data from the network is being made available via the eddystore processing hub. eddystore is a facility for the storage and processing of eddy covariance data for the NERC community. eddystore can automatically process uploaded data, allowing near-real-time flux calculation with automated raw-data uploads. Processing can be carried out in parallel to achieve fast calculation times for long time series. The system can be accessed via a web interface or a Linux command-line interface. Output data can be downloaded using a web browser or with SCP.

Our GHG flux measurement work also yields open access datasets that are located in the Environmental Information Data Centre: Flux (CO2, water and energy) and meteorological data in UK. Examples include:

Communication and presentations



Synergies between the UK-SCAPE GHG monitoring project and other research activities enables UKCEH to maximise resource efficiency, participate in research collaborations, and extend the range of outputs and impact.

UKCEH National Capability


Project lead - Pete Levy

Flux network lead - Ross Morrison